How to explain the time change?
Every year in March and October, whenchange an hour comes the same questions that come back, "But then we sleep an hour more or an hour less? I never know!. " Yes, you see what we want to talk about.
But have you ever asked yourself the question: Why?
If today thechange from winter time to summer time is done almost automatically for all of us, you may be surprised to learn that it stems from historical, geopolitical and economic decisions.
Benjamin Franklin behind the time change?
The idea of applyinga change an hour is very old and we owe it to this dearBenjamin Franklin in 1784, when he was Ambassador of the United States. Awakened early by a noise in the street, he finds that daylight already filters behind the curtains, and then understands that they are several hours of daylight that are lost by the Parisians, still asleep. His proposal then consists of adjust the rest hours to the sun's rhythm: Get up early to enjoy the morning light, and go to bed early to save candles. Satan, no?
But rather than forcing men to change their rhythm and habits, the idea is born ofchange the hour displayed by clocks.Summer Time Was Bornbut the change from Winter to Summer will take more than a century to truly break through.
Indeed, it is in1916 that the hour of summer is applied for the first time in Germany-Austria-Hungary to save coal for the war effort by limiting domestic consumption. In the spring of 1916, France, the United Kingdom and the United States also change an hour. But the passage to summer time will be abandoned once peace returns.
Time Change: From Occupation to Today
In June 1940, Nazi Germany occupied France, at that time in London (GMT). Germany is at GMT + 2, and it is not no question of the Occupants adapting to the’the hour of summer French (GMT+1)! All occupied territories therefore pass through "at German time, " or GMT + 2.
That's where it gets complicated! France is split in two on either side of the demarcation line: in the North, the French then live at GMT + 2 while the South has retained GMT + 1. Can't wait for a late train? So imagine the puzzle imposed on the SCNF, whose trains cross the demarcation line daily trying to adapt to the different time zones...
It was therefore under the impetus of the SNCF, weary of permanent delays, that the Vichy government decreed in February 1941 a change an hour in a free zone, which leads to from all over France to German time, GMT + 2which will remain so until 1945.
At Liberation, the government decided to return to GMT + 1 initially, thinking of returning to GMT afterwards.
You wonder why Greenwich is the reference meridian or what the acronym means GMT ? Do not wait any more click here, Team Charlie enlightens you!
Oil shock and energy savings
In 1973, the context ofoil crisisurges the French Government and its President, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, to use the change an hour to reduce household energy consumption: this is the birth of the slogan "We don't have oil, but we have ideas!."
After rationing the service stations and stopping the television programmes at 11pm, the government Chirac reintroduced the change of time in 1976the objective is to better match the hours of activities with the sunshine, thus limiting lighting expenditure.
Since activities are much more important at the end of the day, enjoying an extra hour of daylight in the late afternoon or evening allows the government to making significant savings, according to the supporters of this measure.
So you will have understood it,the change of time is a tool used for a long time, more or less rightly, for regulating energy consumptionreduce the need for artificial lighting and optimize the activity time during the day.
Are all countries changing times?
If all the countries of the European Union and the United Stateschange hours twice a year, more than 100 do not apply it, particularly in Asia and Africa. Russia has also abandoned the change of time in 2011whereas this change was harmful to the biological rhythm of its inhabitants.
In 2020, we will pass tothe hour of summerthe last Sunday of Marchor on the night of 28-29 March. At 2 o'clock I will have to adjust myCharlie Paris watch over 3 h. The sun sets an hour later, but we sleep an hour less.
The change of summer time tothe hour of winter will take place on the night of 24-25 October. At 3am, it will be 2am. We gain an hour's sleep but the sun sets an hour earlier!
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